Transcription by Laia Ferrer

Transportation and GIS.

Transcription by Laia Ferrer

“Discrete Event Simulation Experiments and Geographic Information Systems in Congestion Management Planning”  
Entity Proceedings of the 1998 Winter Simulation Conference
Author Roy Brooks Wiley, RMC, Inc.
Thomas K. Keyser, Ohio University
Content Paper: 
"Discrete Event Simulation Experiments and Geographic Information Systems in Congestion Management Planning"

A regional transportation system and movement of large traffic volumes through it, are characteristics of stochastic systems. The standard traffic management or transportation planning approach uses a slice in time view of the system. Static, mean values of system variables are used for the basis of incident-caused, congestion management decisions. By reason of the highly variable nature of transportation systems, discrete event simulation is used in the planning process. The simulation model is highly dependent on the spatial accuracy of real world coordinates of nodes and the lengths of the roadway network links. Link travel times, queue spill back and turn lane queue size are directly related to the magnitude of incident-caused congestion, and the roadway system’s ability to recover from it. The incorporation of accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) data with a powerful transportation simulation software package and properly designed data collection and analysis techniques are invaluable in support of transportation incident management decisions.

Entity URISA (1994), p362-375, copyright Urban and Regional Information Association 
Author Chengri Ding, Dep. of Urban & Regional Planning, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Content Paper: 
"Impact analysis of spatial data aggregation on transportation forecasted demand: a gis approach"

Geographic analysis units are established for various purposes in spatial modeling. For example, an aggregation of blocks or polygons might be used for forecasting trips originating and ending in aggregated census block groups. Conventional transportation planning analysis models begin with a predetermined traffic analysis zone (TAZ) system and follow four sequential steps: trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and route choice (trip assignment). One of the major drawbacks in this analysis procedure is that the TAZ system is assumed to be fixed, disregarding changes in the spatial pattern and distribution of land use, population and other social-economic activities. Influences of the spatial analysis unit and on forecasted trip demand are ignored. This paper tracks the influence of spatial unit aggregation and spatial unit delineation on the forecasted transport demand by providing a GIS-based computer simulation system in which the TAZ system is designed using criteria such as homogeneity, contiguity, and similar size population areas. TRANPLAN, a commercially available transportation planning software package, is integrated into GIS (ARC/INFO) and used to capture the major characteristics of the transportation system.

Entity Paper appears in March-April, 1998 TR News
Author Zhong-Ren Peng, Department of Urban Planning
Edward A. Beimborn, Center for Urban Transportation Studies
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Content Paper: 
"Internet GIS and Its Applications in Transportation"

Two of the technologies of the 90s, the Internet and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have changed the ways transportation professionals access, share, disseminate and analyze data and information. The Internet has greatly improved the accessibility and transmission of all types of information including transportation. Transportation data providers, including government agencies and private organizations, are discovering the convenience of publishing and disseminating transportation information on the World Wide Web and many have set up their own Web pages.

Entity Paper appears in March-April, 1998 TR News
Author Chris Markel , Senior GIS Analyst , Geo Decisions , Division of Gannett Fleming,Inc. 
Content Paper: 
"Transportation Information System for Project Identification and Prioritization"

A Transportation Information System (TIS) was developed to assist County, MPO, and RPO Planners in Pennsylvania in identifying and prioritizing transportation projects to be included in PennDOT's construction planning activities. The TIS was developed with ArcView to allow planning staff to identify potential projects using a variety of environmental, cultural, and PennDOT road and bridge information, and to prioritize and highlight the projects for presentation to PennDOT, MPO, and legislative entities.

Entity Paper appears in March-April, 1998 TR News
Author Cecil W. H. Goodwin, The U. of Tennessee, Energy, Environment, and Resources Center
Content Paper: 
"Towards a common language for ivhs databases"

The development of a common language understood by the various communities involved in Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS) databases is crucial for data sharing and the integration of databases at the national level for IVHS deployment. As it is, the IVHS industry, government at different levels, the GIS-T community, and academic research communities bring their own worldviews and vocabularies to problems that span multiple communities, with the result that requirements as well as proposed solutions to IVHS problems are often ambiguously expressed and poorly understood across community boundaries. In particular, a common understanding of the various meanings of data quality as they apply to digital databases is lacking and urgently needed. Under contract to the Federal Highway Administration, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing an information infrastructure to support data sharing and to clarify map database issues across all IVHS applications. This will require integrating the expertise and viewpoints of the many communities involved, i.e. establishing an infrastructure for understanding. This paper presents an exploration of community language issues for IVHS map databases, and points out the difficulty of achieving commonality of understanding across community boundaries.

Entity ASPRS/ACSM (1994), copyright ASPRS/ACSM
Author Dean C. Merchant P.E. P.S., Topo Photo, Inc.
Content Paper: 
"Airborne gps-photogrammetry for transportation systems"

Application of airborne-GPS photogrammetric methods to control surveys for transportation systems is discussed. Typical transportation photography is flown in strips rather than blocks; as a consequence, control provided by airborne-GPS tends to reside on a common spatial line. This in turn generates an ill-conditioned if not singular system of normal equations for bundle block adjustment computation. Solutions to this problem are proposed and demonstrated. Results from photography taken at 1800 meters altitude by an RC-20 camera located in a pressurized aircraft and controlled by a GPS, dual frequency receiver at a distance of 35 Km from the fixed ground station are presented. Accuracies of better than one part in 20,000 of the flight height are reported when only one ground control point is used.

Entity GIS/LIS (1994), p787-795, copyright GIS/LIS
Author Christopher Wartian and Sanjiv Gandhi, Orange County, GIS
Content Paper: 
"Transportation model network interface with geographic index database system"

This project has been undertaken by Orange County, Florida's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Traffic Engineering (TE) departments. This GIS application developed a link between transportation model data defined by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and the County's street centerline network (Geographic Index Database system). After the initial schema design of the application, the development and implementation work was divided into two phases. The link between transportation model and street centerline segments was created with an indirect table association. This interface has been extremely valuable to link two databases using the capabilities of the GIS. The transportation model data, which only existed in tabular form, is now accurately tied with graphics. This project helped to forge a constructive relationship among two Orange County agencies. Building this kind of relationship is critical to the success of a multi-agency GIS at the local level.

Entity URISA Journal, Volume 10, #2, 1998
Author Zhong-Ren Peng, Jonathan N. Groff and Kenneth J. Dueker
Content Paper: 
"An Enterprise GIS Database Design for Agency-Wide Transit Applications"

Transit applications of GIS require various forms of representations of routes in geographic space. Project-oriented GIS databases designed to serve individual applications may result in redundancy and inconsistent databases among applications. It is preferable to construct a general enterprise-wide GIS database to meet data needs for various applications. Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (Tri-Met) has developed an enterprise GIS database. This paper documents the development process and addresses database design issues that are unique for transit networks: the relational representations of spatial features in the transit network and temporal service variations in service scheduling. A mechanism to integrate spatial features of routes, segments and stops with temporal service variations is developed. Dual referencing systems have been implemented to design the database: a linear referencing system to link transit stops and time points on a route, and a location referencing system to relate the transit network to the underlying street network. Dynamic segmentation is implemented to relate distance-referenced stops and time points to individual route paths. The developed enterprise GIS database has become the common database for several applications in the transit agency, such as automatic trip planning, computer-aided dispatch and control, and service planning and scheduling.

Entity Articles Currently Under Peer Review by the URISA Journal (Version 03/27/00)
Author Lyna Wiggins 
Kenneth Deuker 
Joseph Ferreira 
Carolyn Merry
Zhong-ren Peng
Bruce Spear
Content Paper: 
"Application challenges for geographic information science: implications for research, education, and policy for transportation planning and management"

Decisions made by transportation planners and managers impact our daily lives, and these professionals increasingly rely on information technology to assist in their work. This application area provides numerous challenges for geographic information science. This paper begins by describing the dimensions of these challenges, and uses several scenarios to illustrate where we are now and where we may be going. The views of the future from the scenarios lead to a discussion of a series of research challenges and questions. These questions are framed within the 10 research challenges defined by the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science. The paper concludes with a discussion of the educational needs of the transportation community..

Entity Center for Transportation Research and Education
Iowa State University
Content Paper: 
"The Application of GIS to Multimodal Investment Analysis"

"The purpose of this paper is to highlight the key the key issues involved with the application of GIS to multimodal investment analysis. As will be discussed, there are considerable data requirements involved. GIS offers a variety of analytic functions that enhance data base management activities as well as spatial analysis. Using GIS for multimodal investment analysis will merge transportation network analysis with regional economic impact modeling. This represents an innovative use of GIS, especially in the area of feedback between travel patterns and economic activities. GIS technology is still evolving, with advancements in modeling capabilities currently in the development stages. Advances in GIS, along with tremendous improvements in computing speed, graphics quality, and Internet accessibility may change the face of modeling activities in the near future."

Entity Travel Model Improvement Program (TMIP)
Author Jin Ren, P.E. and Bob DenOuden at Thurston Regional Planning Council
Content Paper:
"Integrating EMME/2, GIS, SPSS, ALOGIT and ACCESS for Multimodal Travel Demand Model Development in a Medium-Sized Community"

"This paper addresses how it is possible for a medium-size MPO with limited human resources and funding to successfully develop a state-of-the-art multi-modal
travel demand forecasting model using locally collected survey data. It is focused on some useful EMME/2 features and modules, which contribute a great deal to the
data preparation and integration for both model estimation and application."

Entity GIS for Transportation Symposium
Content Web of the GIS-T Symposium

Abstracts, Presentations and Papers of the "1999 GIS-T Symposium (San Diego)" and the "2000 GIS-T Symposium (Minnesota)"

Entity Harvard Design & Mapping Co., Inc.
Content Project Showcase:

1. Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) System Implementation: Global Positioning System (GPS) Integration for Automatic VehicleLocation (AVL) Technology at Boston Edison's CAD-IMAGE Project.
In a move toward corporate-wide integration of their highly detailed GIS database of the entire greater Boston area, Boston Edison Company recently contracted with HDM to develop a Global Positioning System (GPS) integration with their system data for Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL). BECo will use AVL for tracking service vehicles to make staff scheduling more efficient, decrease response time to customers, and to improve emergency response to fires, disasters and other crises.

2. Attaching Highway Performance Data to Road Networks in a GIS
Every year, transportation officials in the U.S states and possessions are required to submit data to the U.S. Department of Transportation concerning the extent, surface condition, capacity and use of highways within their jurisdictions. The FHWA uses this
data to compile a series of reports on the status of the nation's highways. FHWA selected HDM to undertake a research project aimed at incorporating such highway statistics into a GIS in order to display various attributes of roadways easily and comparably from state to state.

3. High Speed Surface Transportation Study
As a result of the 1991 Intermodal Transportation Act, the Federal Railroad Administration authorized a study of the effects of High Speed Surface Transportation (HSST) on the transportation network between Boston and New York City, via Albany. HDM, teamed with Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (formerly EBASCO Infrastructure) of New York City, is bringing together data from two states to study transportation improvement issues. A major component of the study is to focus on magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) techniques, as well as high speed rail service. Environmental, economic and land use impacts of proposed routes from Boston to Albany, and from Albany to New York City, will be analyzed using HDM's GIS system. HDM produced maps and data, and has worked closely with the two state transportation agencies to transfer the technology developed during the study.

Entity Geo Decisions, Division of Gannett Fleming, Inc.
Content Transportation Projects:
  1. GIS Strategic Plan – Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
  2. Sign Inventory and Management and Ordering System (SIMOS) –Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
  3. Transportation Information Systems - Southern Alleghenies Planning and Development Commission (SAPDC), PennDOT, Bedford, Fulton, Huntingdon, and Somerset Counties Planning Commissions
  4. U.S. 301 Corridor Constraints Mapping – Maryland Highway Department
  5. GIS Transit Development – Tidewater Transportation District Commission (TTDC)
  6. STAR-NET GIS/ITS Integration - Johnson City Metropolitan Transportation Planning Organization (MTPO)
  7. Integrated Design Traffic System Development – Florida DOT District IV
  8. Engineering Database GIS Support – North Carolina Department of Transportation
  9. TRAILBLAZER GIS-T Project – City of Elizabethton, TN
  10. Nelsonville, Ohio, Feasible Corridor Alternatives – Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT)
  1. Tidewater Regional Transit Tidewater, VA
  2. Southern Alleghenies Planning and Development Commission (SAPDC) South Central Pennsylvania
A wide list of presentations and publications about GIS for Transportation
Entity Massachusetts Geographic Information Council (MGIC) 
Content Brief summaries, in outline form, of the main points presented by the listed speakers at the September 8, 1997 meeting of the Massachusetts Geographic Information Council (MGIC). 

Overview of Meeting - Presented by Elizabeth Harper, formerly of MassHighways
- Introduction to GIS-Transportation (GIS-T) 
- Overview of Regional Activities 
- Special Presentations:
- GIS-T Applications - Moakley Center 
- Welfare to Work - Volpe Center 
- Safety and Positive Train Control - Volpe Center

Entity Arizona Transportation Information System (ATIS)
Arizona Department of Transportation
Content "The Arizona Transportation Information System (ATIS) is what ADOT refers to when talking about the Arizona base road map, otherwise known as ATIS Roads. ATIS Roads is a GIS coverage (or layer) of Arizona roads and streets. It originated from the ALISS (Accident Location Information Surveillance System) map base that was maintained by Photogrammetry and Mapping over the past 25 years. What began as a simple drawing tool has now emerged into a full Geographic Information System (GIS). This website was designed to disseminate GIS data and maps."
Entity TransCad, Cliper Corporation
Content General Information about TransCad:

"TransCAD is the first and only Geographic Information System (GIS) designed specifically for use by transportation professionals to store, display, manage, and analyze transportation data. TransCAD combines GIS and transportation modeling capabilities in a single integrated platform, providing capabilities that are unmatched by any other package. TransCAD can be used for all modes of transportation, at any scale or level of detail. TransCAD provides:
-A powerful GIS engine with special extensions for transportation 
- Mapping and visualization tools designed for transportation applications 
- Application modules for routing, travel demand forecasting, and location modeling"

Application examples.

Entity GeoGraphics Lab at the Moakley Center for Technological Applications
Bridgewater State College
Content "FTP server hosts the FTA GIS database of bus systems which includes:

- All fixed-route buses in the U.S. recorded as GIS route systems and as line databases, stored in various propietary formats, 
- Level of Service spreadsheets for each route in each bus system, including days and hours of service and frequency of service during the day, 
- Service area maps – area databases of cities and towns comprising the service area with contact information for each. (This has been added recently—see description.)

In 1994, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) moved to increase the potential power and scope of geographic information systems (GIS) in the transit industry through the Transit GIS Initiative, which was an integral part of the National Spatial Database Infrastructure Initiative. In doing so, the FTA made a commitment to the development of transit GIS databases, which provide essential information for the use of GIS software. By the Fall of 1996, five hundred and thirty of the nation's fixed route bus services had been built into GIS route systems by students and staff of Bridgewater State College (BSC). By early 1999, all fixed route bus services had been completed. In an effort to promote the use of GIS as an analytical tool within the transit industry, FTA and BSC have shared these internal GIS data products for planning and research purposes through our Web site."

Entity The Office of Geographic Information Services
U.S. Department of Transportation -- Bureau Of Transportation Statistics
Content "The Bureau's Geographic Information Services are a national resource for transportation spatial data and GIS in transportation (GIS-T) information."

- New Geo-spatial Data From NTAD 2000 CD:
The NTAD is a cooperative effort throughout the US Department of Transportation and other Federal agencies. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the US Bureau of the Census, the National Park Service (NPS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), The Military Traffic Management Command TEA, and the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) supplied data for this project.

- NSDI Road Data Model:
The first draft of a proposed road data model standard for segmenting and identifying unique road segments. This site also includes reference documents and a new e-mail list server to share comments about the road data model standard.

- Conferences
- Geo-Spacial Data (plus translation software)
- Map Gallery
- References: Abstracts, Papers.
- Links